Wisp Unification Theory

Questions and Answers

Change: - Links added to "Katie Bouman - M87 black hole image. Page last updated 27-Jun-2021

Questions and Answers

A theory that is close to the theory of everything should be able to provide answers to the deeper questions of physics in a clear and simple way, and support new findings. Wisp theory does this remarkable well.



What is ether (aether)?

It is a substance that is made from tiny particles called wisps. I call empty space "zero-state space", and full space "one-state space". We think of space as being void, but in reality it is full of weightless one-state particles (wisps). The ether is responsible for the propagation of light and force. No friction force exists between wisps, but they are bound together by a strong force - wisp force, which is similar in strength to the nuclear force. It is the fifth force in nature, from which the other four forces are derived.

In free space, wisps are in closer together and the binding force is at its greatest. Close to large material bodies, wisp space density reduces as wisps are forced apart by curvature, and the binding force is weaker.

The ether density in "empty space" is far greater than any substance known to man.
Sir Oliver Lodge predicted its properties in his 1933 Lecture - The Mode of Future Existence.

That Ether is a very substantial entity, far denser than any form of matter, has been gradually becoming clear to physicists. At first, we only said that it must be denser than lead or gold or platinum, but now we find that it must be out of all proportion denser. I have made an estimate of its density, in the light of electromagnetic theory, and it comes out inevitably huge. Every cubic millimetre contains as much substance as what, if it were matter, we should call a thousand tons. As the Ether is not matter in the ordinary sense of the term, our ordinary units of measurement are inappropriate; but on the analogy of matter, the Ether is of the order a million million times as dense as water. All its properties are of supernormal magnitude. Its rate of vibration which enables us to see any ordinary object is five hundred million million per second: a number so great that to try to conceive such a number of vibrations per second simply dizzies us. The number of seconds which have passed since ancient geological periods of twenty million years ago is about this number. Yet we familiarly make use of these vibrations. Our wonderful organ, the eye, is constructed so as to cope with them, in the easiest possible manner. And most people are ignorant - as ignorant as are the animals - of the strange ethereal environment amid which we all live, and of which the vibrations convey to us so much information, and awaken so keenly our sense of beauty.


What is matter?

It is a spherical distortion in the ether (wisp space) that forms because of the presence of a hole (empty zero-state space). The ether cannot fill the hole, but it does wrap around it forming spherical symmetry. I call these patterns matter-fractals (fig 4.2) and they form the fundamental particles of physics.


What we normally perceive as empty space is in fact a rock solid lump of wisps densely packed with enormous mass. Fundamental particles exist as regions of reduced density in the ether (fig 4.2b). Our perception of what fundamental particles are (fig 4.2a) is based on a "photographic negative" of reality.

Fig 4.2a We think matter is something solid in an empty space "a photographic negative of reality"


Fig 4.2b Matter is something empty in a solid ether space


How does matter get its mass from the ether?

The tiny particles (wisps) that make up the ether have mass and there are a finite number of them associated with each type of fundamental particle, which form patterns (matter-fractals) around holes in the ether, and each pattern has a unique mass value. And this is its absolute inertial mass.


Isn't the wisp really just another name for the higgs particle?

They are similar in that they both claim to be responsible for giving matter its mass. But higgs bosons are associated with a field and wisps exist as discrete sized particles and so are fundamentally different.


What is gravity?

The presence of matter in the ether causes it to stretch (due to stretching of its bonding forces) and the ether reacts by putting the squeeze back on matter. It's like stretching an elastic band into a circle. It develops circular tension force, which in turn produces an inward acting radial compression force.

The key to understanding how gravity works is in understanding how the radial compression force acts on the surface of the zero-state sphere (empty hole) at the centre of the matter-fractal. This ensures that gravity obeys an inverse square law and not an inverse cube law that would otherwise result. The radial compression force acting down on the upper surface of the matter-fractal's zero-state sphere causes the gravitational effect.

Ironically both Newton and Einstein were right about gravity, even though their theories are completely different. Wisp theory explains why Einstein's curved space and Newton's ether density variation are both right. All that is needed to solve the mystery is the empty hole "zero-state sphere". See chapter 5 for a full discusion on gravity.


Does dark matter exist?

No. Dark matter is not a physical thing, i.e., it's not a form of exotic matter, it's a gravitational effect caused by rotating ether (wisp space). Wisp space rotates about spinning black holes at the centres of galaxies. And any mass that rotates causes the surrounding wisp space to rotate (it’s a requirement of the physical law – conservation of angular momentum – that the surrounding ether rotates, because matter is holes in the ether). Rotation magnifies the variation in density of across particles (matter-fractals) in wisp space. This density variation is present in non-rotating space and may be partly responsible for the pioneers' orbital discrepancies, see figure 5.11. Additional ether rotation caused by the Sun’s spin will amplify the effect.


This effect has recently been detected around the spinning Earth. It is likely the extra gravitational pull is a combination of ether density variation distorting the satellites’ matter-fractals and ether rotation due to the Earth’s spin amplifying the effect, see

Rotating space amplifies this tiny force producing the dark matter gravitational effect.

Dark matter doesn't exist as a physical substance, it's cause caused by the ether. See Glenn Starkman's article

Wisp theory supports the idea that non-rotating elliptical galaxies do not possess dark matter, see http://physicsweb.org/article/news/7/9/1

The suggestion that dark matter is a gravitational effect caused by an invisible fluid "ether" is given further support by theoretical physicist Robert J. Scherrer, see

For an update on pioneers' orbital discrepancies, see


What causes space to expand?

If you make a hole in the ether (wisp space), a spherical fractal pattern (matter-fractal) forms around the hole, which causes the surrounding ether to expand slightly as the density of ether around the fractal is reduced. So we can conclude that the expansion in ether is proportional to the total surface area of its matter-fractals' "zero-state spheres". This was minimum before the big bang event, as there was just one large zero-state sphere at the centre of an ultra-suppermassive black hole. After the big bang, the single zero-state sphere broke into many smaller ones, some formed galaxy seed fragments and others the fundamental particles. The total surface area of the smaller zero-state spheres is much greater and this resulted in a massive positive expansion pressure in the ether.


Contraction and the slow crunch

The reverse effect of expansion occurs when black holes swallow matter-fractals, the ether contracts. As the universe ages the contraction of space will overtake its expansion, resulting in a "big crunch", although the collapse of the universe will be an extremely slow process and perhaps should be renamed the "slow crunch".


What causes the spiral structure in galaxies?

If there is a small residual rotation in a galaxy then this can be magnified. When the black hole at the centre of the galaxy absorbs matter, the surrounding ether (wisp space) contracts reducing its density. The law of conservation of angular momentum must be upheld and so the ether in the galaxy rotates faster. This starts with the ether near the centre and works outwards, creating density waves, which form the spiral arm structures.


How did supermassive black holes form?

Astronomers have collected evidence that suggest all galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Their masses are about 0.5 per cent (typically several million to a billion solar masses) of that of their host galaxies.
How they came to exist is a mystery, but wisp theory suggests that they are fragments of zero-state space blasted out during the big bang.
This is supported by recent findings that show supermassive black holes existed near the start of the big bang. See

Stunning Three Dimensional Model of the Universe - The Millennium Run, see


First ever picture of a black hole

Here is a link to an image produced by Katie Bouman. The image shows a supermassive black hole at the centre of M87 produced by an algorithm designed by Katie of data collected form telescopes around the world. See


Home -- About Me -- Reasons why Einstein was wrong -- One-way speed of light experiments -- Hot topic -- Q&A -- ACES - The end of Relativity --
Book Contents -- Introduction -- 1 Matter, Space and Time -- 2 Symmetry -- 3 Fractals -- 4 Wisp Space -- 5 Gravity -- 6 Electromagnetic Force --
7 Wisp & S.R: Fundamentals -- 8 Wisp & S.R: Electrodynamics --
9 Wisp & S.R: Doppler effect -- 10 Wisp & S.R: Relativistic Mechanics --
11 Big bang -- Appendix A -- Appendix B -- Index A-Z -- Copyright -- Feedback


Copyright © Kevin Harkess 2002 - 2021. All rights reserved. Harkess Research.